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Instant calculations for water and wastewater professionals, made by:

This was developed in Europe and as a result all entries for U.S. will need to be made in inches, rather than feet. Results may also be in inches, rather than feet.

Degrees |
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° | ||

minutes | ||

seconds | ||

Decimal degrees |
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° | ||

Radians |
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rad | ||

π.rad |

Metric |
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m² | ||

mm² | ||

cm² | ||

km² | ||

ha | ||

US |
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in² | ||

ft² | ||

mi² |

Metric |
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mg/L | ||

g/cm³ | ||

g/L | ||

kg/m³ | ||

mg/mL | ||

US |
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lb/in³ | ||

lb/ft³ | ||

lb/gal |

Metric |
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J | ||

Wh | ||

kWh | ||

cal | ||

kcal | ||

N.m | ||

kgf.m | ||

US |
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BTU (iso) | ||

hp.h | ||

lb/in | ||

Eq. ton of Coal | ||

Eq. ton of Oil |

Metric |
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kg/s | ||

kg/min | ||

kg/h | ||

kg/day | ||

US |
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lb/s | ||

lb/min | ||

lb/h | ||

lb/day |

Metric |
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m³/s | ||

m³/min | ||

m³/h | ||

m³/day | ||

L/s | ||

L/min | ||

L/h | ||

US |
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gal/s (gps) | ||

gal/min (gpm) | ||

gal/h (gph) | ||

gal/day (gpd) | ||

Mgal/day (mgd) | ||

ft³/min (cfm) | ||

ft³/s (cfs) |

Metric |
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L/m².h (LMH) | ||

m³/m².day (m/day) | ||

m³/m².h (m/h) | ||

US |
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gal/ft².day (gfd) | ||

gal/ft².h (gfh) | ||

gal/ft².min (gfm) |

Metric |
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N | ||

kN | ||

kgf | ||

dyn | ||

US |
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lbf | ||

pdl |

mg/L CaCO_{3} |

meq/L |

mmol/L |

°dH |

°e |

°fH |

gpg |

Metric |
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m | ||

cm | ||

mm | ||

µm | ||

nm | ||

km | ||

US |
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in | ||

mil | ||

ft | ||

yd | ||

mi |

Metric |
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kg | ||

g | ||

mg | ||

µg | ||

metric ton | ||

US |
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lb | ||

oz | ||

ton |

Metric |
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W (J/s) | ||

kW | ||

cal/s | ||

kcal/h | ||

kgf.m/s | ||

US |
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hp | ||

bhp | ||

BTU/s |

Metric |
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bar | ||

Pa | ||

kPa | ||

kg/cm² (kgf) | ||

atm | ||

mH_{2}O |
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mmHg | ||

US |
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psi | ||

ftH_{2}O |
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inHg |

Metric |
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m/s | ||

m/min | ||

m/h (m³/m².h) | ||

m/day (m³/m².day) | ||

km/h | ||

cm/h | ||

cm/min | ||

cm/s | ||

US |
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in/h | ||

in/min | ||

in/s | ||

ft/h (ft³/ft².h) | ||

ft/min | ||

ft/s | ||

mi/h (mph) | ||

mi/min (mpm) |

°C |

°F |

Kelvin |

Composite |
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days | ||

hours | ||

minutes | ||

seconds | ||

Decimal |
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days | ||

hours | ||

minutes |

Metric |
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m³ | ||

L | ||

mL | ||

µL | ||

pL | ||

US |
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gal | ||

in³ | ||

ft³ | ||

fl oz |

Nominal pipe size / DN |
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Wall thickness designation |
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Equivalent thickness designations* |
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None |
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External diameter |
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mm | in | ||

Internal diameter |
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mm | in | ||

Internal area |
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mm² | in² | ||

Wall thickness |
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mm | in |

*Other designations with the same diameters and wall thickness.

Nominal Pipe Size dimensions from the ASME Standards B36.10M, ASME B36.19M and ISO 6708. Valid for Stainless Steel, Ductile Iron, PVC and CPVC pipes.

Plant flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Waste sludge flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Solids concentration in the reactor¹ |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Solids returning from the clarifier² |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Solids in the clarified/product water |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Reactor volume |
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m³ | ft³ | |||

Solids retention time³ (SRT) |
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h | days |

¹ For activated sludges this can be the MLVSS (Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) concentration in the aeration tank.

² Solids in the recirculation return to the reactor. For activated sludges this is the concentration in the return activated sludge (RAS) or the concentration in the waste sludge.

³ Also known as Mean Cell Residence Time (MCRT).

Clarifier influent flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Solids influent concentration¹ |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Clarifier cross-sectional area |
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m² | ft² | |||

Solids loading rate |
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kg/(m².h) | lb/(ft².h) |

¹ For activated sludges this can be the MLVSS (Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) concentration from the aeration tank. For water treatment clarifiers this is usually the TSS.

Influent flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Solids influent concentration¹ |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Clarifier/reactor volume |
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m³ | ft³ | |||

Volumetric solids loading rate |
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kg/(m³.day) | lb/(ft³.day) |

¹ For activated sludges this can be the MLVSS (Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) load in the clarifier or the BOD load in the aeration tank. For anaerobic reactors this is usually the COD load.

Plant flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Recirculation sludge flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Return activated sludge recycle ratio¹ |
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% | ||||

Solids concentration in the reactor² |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Solids returning from the clarifier³ |
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mg/L | lb/gal |

¹ This ratio can be calculated either from the flows or from the solid concentrations.

² For activated sludges this can be the MLVSS (Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) concentration in the aeration tank.

³ Solids in the recycle activated sludge (RAS) stream.

Influent flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Influent suspended solids¹ |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Suspended solids in the reactor² |
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mg/L | lb/gal | |||

Reactor volume³ |
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m³ | ft³ | |||

Sludge age |
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h | days |

¹ This can be either the VSS (volatile suspended solids) or the TSS (total suspended solids).

² This can be either the MLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) or the MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids). If using MLVSS, the inlet concentration must be VSS.

³ For activated sludges, the reactor is the aeration tank.

Section geometry |
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Bottom width |
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mm | in | |||

Side slope base width¹ |
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mm | in | |||

Internal diameter |
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mm | in | |||

Water depth |
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mm | in | |||

Slope of the channel² |
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m/m or in/in | % | |||

Manning coefficient³ |
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Kinematic viscosity |
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m²/s | cSt | |||

Flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Average velocity |
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m/s | ft/s | |||

Reynolds |
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Froude |
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Kinetic energy |
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m | ft | |||

Specific energy |
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m | ft | |||

Hydraulic radius |
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mm | in | |||

Wetted perimeter |
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mm | in |

¹ Base of the right-angle triangle with the water depth as height and the inclined side slope as hypotenuse. The model considers both side slopes as identical.

² Inclination of the channel or the altitude loss per horizontal length.

³ Typical values from literature: 0.013 for concrete or cast iron, 0.03 for gravel and 0.01 for smooth plastic.

Pressure reading taps¹ |
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Pipe internal diameter |
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mm | in | |||

Orifice internal diameter |
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mm | in | |||

Fluid density |
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kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | |||

Dynamic viscosity (µ) |
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Pa.s | cP | |||

Flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Discharge coefficient |
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Pressure drop between taps |
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m | ft | |||

Overall headloss for the orifice plate |
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m | ft |

Calculations from the ISO 5167 (2003) and from the ASME MFC-14M (2001) valid for incompressible fluids, sharp edged orifice plates; orifice diameter >=12.5mm, 1m >; pipe diameter > 25mm, 0.75 >; orifice diameter/pipe diameter > 0.1

¹ Tap type and distances from the orifice plate, upstream and downstream. D stands for the pipe internal diameter.

Standard throat width¹ |
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Primary measurement head² (Ha) |
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mm | in | |||

Secondary measurement head³ (Hb) |
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mm | in | |||

Flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Submergence ratio |
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¹ Standard sizes and discharge coefficients according to the ASTM D1941 (2013).

² Head measurement in the convergence section.

³ Head measurement in the throat section. Used only for submerged flow measurements, leave blank for free flow.

Free flow calculations according to the ASTM D1941 (2003). Submerged flow calculations according to the ISO 9826 (1992).

Measurement head¹ (h) |
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mm | in | |||

Approach channel width (B) |
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mm | in | |||

Throat width (b) |
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mm | in | |||

Throat length (L) |
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mm | in | |||

Bump height² (p) |
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mm | in | |||

Flow |
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m³/h | gpm |

Discharge coefficients and variable names according to the ISO 4359 (1983). Devices also known as Venturi flumes.

¹ According to the standard, the head is measured in the approach channel.

² Leave blank if the flume has a flat bottom (typical).

Flow |
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Nm³/h | ft³/min | |||

Air density at NTP |
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kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | |||

Intake pressure* |
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bar | psi | |||

Output pressure* |
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bar | psi | |||

Temperature |
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°C | °F | |||

Mechanic eff. |
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% | ||||

Electric eff. |
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% | ||||

Power |
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kW | hp |

*Absolute pressures. Use the default value (1.013 bar) for intakes at the atmosphere pressure.

Calculations from Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, 2003

Cations |
mg/L |
CaCO_{3} |
meq/L |

Aluminum Al^{3+} |
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Barium Ba^{2+} |
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Calcium Ca^{2+} |
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Copper Cu^{2+} |
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Hydrogen H^{+} |
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Ferrous ion Fe^{2+} |
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Ferric ion Fe^{3+} |
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Magnesium Mg^{2+} |
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Manganese Mn^{2+} |
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Potassium K^{+} |
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Sodium Na^{+} |
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Strontium Sr^{2+} |
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Anions |
mg/L |
CaCO_{3} |
meq/L |

Chloride Cl^{-} |
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Fluoride F^{-} |
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Iodine I^{-} |
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Hydroxide OH^{-} |
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Nitrate NO_{3}^{-} |
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Phosphate (dibasic) PO_{4}^{3-} |
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Phosphate (tribasic) HPO_{4}^{2-} |
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Phosphate (mono) H_{2}PO_{4}^{-} |
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Sulfate SO_{4}^{2-} |
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Bisulfate HSO_{4}^{-} |
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Sulfite SO_{3}^{2-} |
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Sulfide S_{2}^{-} |
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pH |
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Carbonates |
mg/L |
CaCO_{3} |
meq/L |

Carbon dioxide CO_{2} |
|||

Bicarbonate HCO_{3}^{-} |
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Carbonate CO_{3}^{2-} |
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Alkalinity-P | |||

Alkalinity-M | |||

Ammonia |
mg/L |
CaCO_{3} |
meq/L |

Total Ammonia | |||

Ammonium NH_{4}^{+} |
|||

Ammonia NH_{3} |
|||

Neutrals |
mg/L |
CaCO_{3} |
meq/L |

Silica* SiO_{2} |

Balance |
|||

Sum cations | meq/L | ||

Sum anions | meq/L | ||

Sum anions+silica+CO_{2} |
meq/L | ||

Conductivity @ 25°C (if balanced) | µS/cm | ||

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) | mg/L |

*For ion exchange purposes SiO_{2} is considered weakly ionized as H_{2}SiO_{3}(silicic acid). SiO_{2} has MW=60 and is removed as monovalent SiO_{2}^{-}.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) |
||

mg/L O_{2} |
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Organic Matter as Permanganate |
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mg/L KMnO_{4} |
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Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) |
||

mg/L O_{2} |
||

Total Organic Carbon (TOC) |
||

mg/L C |

Rough organic matter conversions based on the empiric factors from DOW Water and Process Solutions Answer Center for natural waters.

Temperature |
||||

°C | °F | |||

Pressure |
||||

bar | psi | |||

Active membrane diameter¹ |
||||

mm | in | |||

Membrane area |
||||

m² | ft² | |||

Average flow during cake formation² |
||||

L/h | gal/h | |||

Inverse of the average flow during cake formation² (Δt/ΔV) |
||||

s/L | s/gal | |||

Filtrate volume during cake formation² (ΔV) |
||||

L | gal | |||

MFI |
||||

s/L² |

Standard test conditions according to the ASTM D8002 (2015) for the MFI 0.45. The MFI will be normalized in case of different temperatures, areas or pressures from the standard test conditions.

¹ 47mm diameter membrane with 0.45µm mean pore size operating at 200±2KPa (2±0.02 bar). Active membrane diameter depends on the filter holder used.

² The cake formation is the linear segment of the (t/V) vs (V) graphic where t is the time in seconds and V is the filtrate volume in liters.

Water flow |
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m³/h | gpm | |||

Chemical dosage* |
||||

mg/L (ppm) | lb/ft³ | |||

Stock concentration |
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%_{w/w} |
mg/L (ppm) | |||

Stock density |
||||

kg/m³ (g/L) | lb/ft³ | |||

Chemical flow - mass |
||||

kg/h | lb/h | |||

kg/day | lb/day | |||

Chemical flow - volume |
||||

L/h | gph | |||

L/day | gpd |

*Chemical dosage as if the product is 100% concentrated.

Chemical solution |
||

Concentration |
|||

%_{w/w} |
mg/L (ppm) | ||

Temperature |
|||

°C | °F | ||

Density |
|||

kg/m³ (g/L) | lb/ft³ |

Properties interpolated from the tables provided by the chemical suppliers and from the Perry's Chemical Engineers Handbook.

Temperature |
|||

°C | °F | ||

Density |
|||

kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | ||

Dynamic Viscosity (µ) |
|||

Pa.s | cP | ||

Kinematic Viscosity (v) |
|||

m²/s | cSt |

Properties at the atmospheric pressure (100 KPa) in the liquid form. Equations from R.C. Weast, 1983, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 64th edition and from the David R. Maidment, 2003 Handbook of Hydrology, McGraw-Hill.

Stream 1 |
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Flow^{1} |
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% | |||

Concentration^{2} |
|||

Stream 2 |
|||

Flow^{1} |
|||

% | |||

Concentration^{2} |
|||

Stream 3 |
|||

Flow^{1} |
|||

% | |||

Concentration^{2} |
|||

Result mixture |
|||

Total flow | |||

Concentration |

^{1} Allows any unit of flow or volume (L/h, m³/h, gpm, m³, L, gal, etc...).

^{2} Allows any unit of concentration (mg/L, ppm, ppb, %, etc...) or temperatures.

Flow |
||||

m³/h | gpm | |||

Inlet solids |
||||

mg/L | ||||

Outlet solids |
||||

mg/L | ||||

Media capacity* |
||||

mg/L | ||||

Media volume |
||||

L | ft³ | |||

Run length |
||||

hours | days | |||

Run volume |
||||

m³ | gal | |||

Contact time |
||||

BV/h | min |

*The media capacity is expressed as mg of solute per Liter of filter media. For ion exchange, the mg/L concentrations can be replaced by meq/L values.

Media volume |
||||

L | ft³ | |||

Water density |
||||

kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | |||

Stock concentration |
||||

%_{w/w} |
mg/L (ppm) | |||

Stock density |
||||

kg/m³ (g/L) | lb/ft³ | |||

Regenerant dosage* |
||||

g/L_{resin} |
lb/ft³_{resin} |
|||

Diluted concentration |
||||

%_{w/w} |
mg/L (ppm) | |||

Contact time |
||||

min | BV/h | |||

Stock regenerant |
||||

L | gal | |||

kg | lb | |||

L/h | gal/h | |||

Diluted regenerant |
||||

L | gal | |||

kg | lb | |||

L/h | gal/h | |||

Dilution water |
||||

L | gal | |||

L/h | gal/h |

*Chemical dosage per liter of resin at 100% concentration.

Gross flow |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

Run length |
|||

h | days | ||

Run volume |
|||

m³ | gal | ||

Feed water Hardness |
|||

mg/L CaCO_{3} |
meq/L | ||

Feed water Sodium concentration |
|||

mg/L | meq/L | ||

Design temperature |
|||

°C | °F | ||

Desired safety factor¹ |
|||

Regeneration level |
|||

g/L_{resin} |
|||

NaCl injection concentration |
|||

% | |||

Resin type² |
|||

Not defined |
|||

Resin volume |
|||

L | ft³ | ||

Column internal diameter |
|||

mm | in | ||

Column cylindrical height |
|||

mm | in | ||

Resin height |
|||

mm | in | ||

Pressure drop at design temperature |
|||

bar | psi | ||

Final safety factor from column design¹ |
|||

Contact time |
|||

min | BV/h | ||

Hardness leakage |
|||

mg/L CaCO_{3} |
meq/L | ||

NaCl @ 100% for regeneration |
|||

kg | lb | ||

Diluted NaCl volume for regeneration |
|||

L | gal | ||

Water consumption for regeneration |
|||

m³ | gal | ||

Overall regeneration duration |
|||

min | h | ||

Regeneration step 1 - backwash³ |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

min | h | ||

Regeneration step 2 - NaCl injection³ |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

min | h | ||

Regeneration step 3 - displacement³ |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

min | h | ||

Regeneration step 4 - fast rinse³ |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

min | h |

Design based in the Ion Exchange resins engineering manuals.

¹ Safety factor over the calculated resin volume. The final safety factor might be higher because the model rounds up the resin volume. Typical: 1.05 to 1.15.

² Suggested resins: Amberlite™ IR120, Amberjet™ 1200, DOWEX™ Marathon™ C or DOWEX™ HCR-S.

³ Backwash in upflow direction. Operation, injection, displacement and rinse in downflow direction.

Average individual element recovery |
||||

% | ||||

Elements in series |
||||

Total system recovery |
||||

% |

Media type¹ |
||||

Filtration rate/velocity |
||||

m/h | ft/h | |||

Media height |
||||

mm | in | |||

Dynamic viscosity (µ) |
||||

Pa.s | cP | |||

Fluid density |
||||

kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | |||

Mean particle effective size |
||||

mm | in | |||

Porosity |
||||

% | ||||

Ergun coefficients |
||||

Kv | Ki | |||

Head loss |
||||

m | in |

¹ Input values for particle sizes, porosity and Ergun coefficients.

Equations from MWH, 2005, Water Treatment Principles and Design 2nd edition.

Media type¹ |
||||

Media height |
||||

mm | in | |||

Desired expansion |
||||

% | ||||

Final height |
||||

mm | in | |||

Dynamic viscosity (µ) |
||||

Pa.s | cP | |||

Fluid density |
||||

kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | |||

Particle density |
||||

kg/m³ | lb/ft³ | |||

Mean particle effective size |
||||

mm | in | |||

Settled bed porosity |
||||

% | ||||

Ergun coefficients |
||||

Kv | Ki | |||

Backwash rate/velocity |
||||

m/h | ft/h |

¹ Input values for particle sizes, porosity and Ergun coefficients.

Equations from MWH, 2005, Water Treatment Principles and Design 2nd edition based in the Akgiray and Saatçi, 2001 models.

Disinfectant |
||

Temperature |
|||

°C | °F | ||

Log removal |
|||

log | % | ||

CT |
|||

min.mg/L | |||

Dosage* |
|||

mg/L (ppm) | %_{w/w} |
||

Contact time* |
|||

min | h |

CT stands for Concentration vs Time and is defined by the EPA Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR). CT Values interpolated from the EPA Disinfection Profiling and Benchmarking Guidance Manual Appendix C, 1999. *Not required for the CT calculation.

pH |
|||

Free chlorine |
|||

mg/L (ppm) | %_{w/w} |
||

Temperature |
|||

°C | °F | ||

Log removal |
|||

log | % | ||

CT |
|||

min.mg/L | |||

Contact time |
|||

min | h |

CT stands for Concentration vs Time and is defined by the EPA Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR). CT Values calculated using the regression method according to the EPA Profiling and Benchmarking Guidance Manual Appendix E, 1999.

Oxidant |
||

Process flow |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

Fe^{2+} concentration |
|||

mg/L | |||

Oxidant dosage (as 100%)* |
|||

mg/L | |||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day | ||

Alkalinity consumed |
|||

mg/L | |||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day | ||

Dry sludge production |
|||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day |

*Stoichiometric values, no safety factors. Equations from ASCE/AWWA Water Treatment Plant Design, 3rd edition, 2003.

Oxidant |
|||

Process flow |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

Mn^{2+} concentration |
|||

mg/L | |||

Oxidant dosage (as 100%)* |
|||

mg/L | |||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day | ||

Alkalinity consumed |
|||

mg/L | |||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day | ||

Dry sludge production |
|||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day |

*Stoichiometric values, no safety factors. Equations from ASCE/AWWA Water Treatment Plant Design, 3rd edition, 2003.

Process flow |
|||

m³/h | gpm | ||

Chemical dosage |
|||

Aluminium Sulfate | mg/L | ||

Ferric Sulfate | mg/L | ||

Ferric Chloride | mg/L | ||

PAC | mg/L %Al | ||

Polymer | mg/L | ||

Turbidity removed |
|||

NTU | |||

Dry sludge production* |
|||

kg/h | lb/h | ||

kg/day | lb/day |

*Average values from real plant data. Equations from MWH, 2005, Water Treatment Principles and Design 2nd edition.

Interest rate |
||

% year | ||

% month | ||

% day |

Principal |
||||

Interest rate |
||||

% per period | ||||

Number of periods |
||||

Simple interest |
||||

Total value |
||||

**Operation:** Fill the blank fields until the results appear. Use the dot "." as the primary decimal separator.

**Export results:** If your system allows, just __PRINT__ to get a formatted output from the open calculation models.

**Tip: ** To get results from the lowest amount of inputs, fill from the top to the bottom.

**Legend: **

Input or result field. Empty fields represent the number zero in the calculations. | |

Invalid input value or character. Might not appear in some systems. | |

Valid input for real time calculation. | |

Read only, for results. | |

Check | Define were the results will be evaluated. |

Shortcut for a model that might help. Use the back button in your system to return to the source model. | |

m³/h | Shortcut for conversions. Use the back button in your system to return to the source model. |

Plutocalc by Daniel Brooke Peig is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

The calculation results can be used for any purpose, including commercial projects, for free.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS, THE SPONSORS OR THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.